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Decentralized Interleaving of Parallel-connected Converters in DC Microgrids

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Multi-phase power delivery architectures traditionally rely on a centralized controller to manage the pulse width modulation of the system to achieve minimal distortion. Because they rely on central logic, these systems are vulnerable to disruption and are designed for a fixed number of converters, making them unsuitable for emerging applications such as DC microgrids which require plug-and-play functionality. To enable flexible and resilient power systems, a new control architecture approach is necessary.


Researchers at NREL have designed a decentralized control architecture that allows parallel-connected converters to achieve an interleaved state. The controllers monitor slight changes in local current to construct the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier and adjust their response accordingly. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, this control method allows the converters to converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across carriers without communication. This approach results in systems that are more resilient because they do not have a single point of failure, and systems that can scale more rapidly as additional converters are added.

  • Increased resiliency
  • Rapidly scalable and customizable
  • Consistently high load bus power quality
Applications and Industries
  • DC microgrids
  • Data centers
  • Telecommunications
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROI 17-64ProposedAvailable03/28/201803/28/2018

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To: Erin Beaumont<>