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Methods for Producing Single Crystal Mixed Halide Perovskites

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite photovoltaics are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar power performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure. In photovoltaic applications, the A cation can be either organic, inorganic, or hybrid in composition. The B component is typically a metal cation such as lead, and X is a halide such as iodine or bromine. Work on solar cells using perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes – resulting in high device efficiencies with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. While the potential for perovskite photovoltaic devices is high, commercialization will require overcoming other challenges relating to material stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility.


Researchers at NREL have developed a simple, low-cost, low temperature synthesis to prepare single crystal perovskites, such as MAPbBr3. This method involves heating a stoichiometric solution of PbBr2 and MABr at a temperature ranging from 40°C to 100°C in an organic solvent (e.g. dimethylformamide) to produce single crystal MAPbBr3 perovskites. In addition, this novel deposition method – alongside enhancing film crystallinity, as demonstrated through X-ray diffraction results – enables the control of doping based on the amount of Cl source added to the precursor solution.

This technology is within the Film Deposition category of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Film Deposition category consists of novel methods for more rapid, less expensive, and more effective means of depositing perovskite films. These techniques have been published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and are prepared for scaling to commercial levels.

  • Enables control of doping
  • Low-cost
  • Enhanced crystallinity
Applications and Industries
  • Photovoltaics
  • Perovskites
  • Film Deposition
Patents and Patent Applications
ID Number
Title and Abstract
Primary Lab
Patent 9,701,696
Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites
An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about C.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 07/11/2017
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROI 14-88PrototypeAvailable01/26/201701/26/2017

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To: Bill Hadley<>