One- and Two-Phase Conversion of Biomass to Furfural
Producing furfural from dehydration of the xylose and hemicellulose sugars found in biomass traditionally has been complicated by the need to separate and purify the compound at high yields when using a mineral acid catalyst. Solid acid catalysts have been implemented but reactions in aqueous solutions result in low yields and challenging separations. A new conversion strategy is needed to address these limitations.DescriptionUW–Madison researchers have developed monophasic and biphasic systems to produce furfural from the C5 sugar fraction of biomass utilizing GVL, itself a product of the reaction, as a solvent. Both methods result in furfural that can be directly distilled out of, or converted into, GVL.
In the monophasic method, a single reaction medium comprises GVL and an acid such as nitric, sulfuric, or solid acid zeolite to minimize the use of water and eliminate the separation step required of mineral acids. Into this solution is introduced pretreated biomass xylose or hemicellulose. The GVL acts as a reaction solvent. By reducing or removing water from the process, less leaching of acid sites occurs and a significantly higher yield of furfural is produced.
The biphasic, or two-layered, method also utilizes GVL, but as an extraction solvent in the form of a suspended organic layer. The lower phase contains an aqueous, acidic solution with a solute such as sodium chloride or fructose. The saturated biomass material dehydrates into furfural, which spontaneously partitions into the upper GVL layer, thereby preventing further degradation via mineral acid catalysis in the aqueous phase.Benefits
- Eliminates purification step
- Produces GVL that can be recycled back for use
- Biphasic system makes distillation easier
- Monophasic system increases yield by decoupling catalyst from solution
- Industrial-scale formulation of furfuryl acid
- Production of GVL
James Dumesic, Elif Gurbuz, Stephanie Wettstein, David Alonso
Dumesic J., Sen S.M., Henao C.A., Braden D.J. and Maravelias C.T. 2012. Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels: Process Development and Technoeconomic Evaluation. Chem. Eng. Sci. 67, 57.
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