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Low pressure Lamination at the Perovskite/ Perovskite Interface

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite halides (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar cell performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure, wherein an organic based cation is A, a metal cation is B, and a divalent halide anion is X. Work on solar cells using these perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes that result in high device efficiency with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. However, this potential for low cost and scalability requires overcoming barriers hindering the commercialization of perovskite devices related to perovskite stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. NREL researchers have made significant technical contributions within six areas critical to developing commercialized perovskite devices, which include increases in film efficiency and stability and innovations in perovskite film deposition methods, film chemistry, hole and electron extraction layer engineering, and device architecture.


Researchers at NREL have developed a method to manufacture perovskite solar cells that allows the top and bottom portion of the cell to be fabricated independently. This method enables both heterojunction devices and devices with a n-type electron transportation layer (ETL) from the n-i-p architecture and a p-type hole transportation layer (HTL) from the p-i-n architecture. It also allows improved device stability by building a gradient into the active layer and by using alternate contacts. The approach can be used at low pressures (250-300 psi) suitable for roll to roll manufacturing. Most significantly, the method allows active and transportation layers to be manipulated independently, self-encapsulates the devices, and improves uniformity, crystallinity, and orientation of the active layer.

This technology is within the Perovskites at Scale and Device Architecture group of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Perovskites at Scale category comprises techniques and processes that enable rapid, inexpensive deposition of high-quality perovskite films. These inventions allow perovskite photovoltaics to be manufactured consistently and cost effectively in an industrial environment.

The Device Architecture category comprises new perovskite solar cell device designs, such as interdigitated back-contact perovskite solar cell devices, that capitalize on the unique properties of the perovskite layer to create low-cost devices with improved efficiency and reliability.

  • Enables new devices architectures
  • Independent manipulation of active and transportation layers
  • Allows the manufacture of self-encapsulated devices
  • Improved stability and performance
Applications and Industries
  • Perovskites
  • Photovoltaics
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROI 18-24PrototypeAvailable04/27/201804/27/2018

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To: Bill Hadley<>