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Controlling Interconnection Contact Layer Structure/Materials to Enable High Performance Perovskite Solar Modules

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite halides (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar cell performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure, wherein an organic based cation is A, a metal cation is B, and a divalent halide anion is X. Work on solar cells using these perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes that result in high device efficiency with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. However, this potential for low cost and scalability requires overcoming barriers hindering the commercialization of perovskite devices related to perovskite stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. NREL researchers have made significant technical contributions within six areas critical to developing commercialized perovskite devices, which include increases in film efficiency and stability and innovations in perovskite film deposition methods, film chemistry, hole and electron extraction layer engineering, and device architecture.


Most perovskite research to date has been focused on lab-scale, single cell devices. These devices are less than 1 cm2 in area and are fabricated using spin coating, a method that is unsuitable for full scale production of large area solar modules. For perovskite innovations to be adopted in practical applications and commercial use, scalable deposition processes must be developed for perovskites.

Researchers at NREL have invented a perovskite device that may be fabricated using techniques suitable for large scale manufacturing. The device, which includes four cells and has an aperture area of over 10 cm2, demonstrates among the highest efficiencies of perovskite solar modules fabricated by scalable deposition methods. To create the device researchers developed procedures to scribe the sub cells and create interconnections between cells that are also fully scalable. Cell layer deposition is accomplished through well understood manufacturing methods such as blade coating, inkjet printing, and spray pyrolysis. Together, these innovations make the use of perovskites in real world applications possible.

This technology is within the Device Architecture and Perovskites at Scale groups of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Device Architecture category comprises new perovskite solar cell device designs, such as interdigitated back-contact perovskite solar cell devices, that capitalize on the unique properties of the perovskite layer to create low-cost devices with improved efficiency and reliability.

The Perovskites at Scale category comprises techniques and processes that enable rapid, inexpensive deposition of high-quality perovskite films. These inventions allow perovskite photovoltaics to be manufactured consistently and cost effectively in an industrial environment.

  • High efficiency perovskite modules
  • Suitable for low cost, industrial manufacturing
Applications and Industries
  • Perovskites
  • Photovoltaics
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROI 17-92PrototypeAvailable04/27/201803/28/2018

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To: Bill Hadley<>