Skip to Content
Find More Like This
Return to Search

Oxide Interlayers for Perovskite Photovoltaics

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Contact NREL About This Technology

Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite halides (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar cell performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure, wherein an organic based cation is A, a metal cation is B, and a divalent halide anion is X. Work on solar cells using these perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes that result in high device efficiency with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. However, this potential for low-cost and scalability requires overcoming barriers hindering the commercialization of perovskite devices related to perovskite stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. NREL researchers have made significant technical contributions within six areas critical to developing commercialized perovskite devices, which include increases in film efficiency and stability and innovations in perovskite film deposition methods, film chemistry, hole and electron extraction layer engineering, and device architecture.


Perovskite photovoltaic devices are composed of organic and inorganic moieties that make developing energetically-favorable contacts for electron and hole extraction challenging. One material that has shown promise as a hole contact layer for perovskite devices, and has been commonly used within research devices, is NiOx. However, recent NREL experiments have demonstrated that the pulsed-laser deposition method commonly used to deposit NiOx generates the contaminant oxy-iodo (IO3-) species that binds positively charged methylammonium (MA) cations and negatively impacts overall device performance.

Thus, NREL researchers have developed novel processing parameters for atomic layer deposition (ALD). These processing parameters enable the deposition of NiOx films, and other oxide films, on top of perovskite absorber layers (MAPbI3 or FAPbI3) and eliminate the generation of the contaminant oxy-iodo (IO3-) species during oxide film deposition.

This technology is within the Hole and Electron Extraction Layer Engineering group of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

  • Avoids the generation of contaminant IO3-
  • Improves charge carrier collection
Applications and Industries
  • Perovskites
  • Photovoltaics
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated

Contact NREL About This Technology

To: Bill Hadley<>