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Organo-Metal Halide Perovskites Films and Methods of Making the Same

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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PDF Document PublicationPCT/US16/33135 (3,107 KB)

Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite halides (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar cell performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure, wherein an organic based cation is A, a metal cation is B, and a divalent halide anion is X. Work on solar cells using these perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes that result in high device efficiency with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. However, this potential for low cost and scalability requires overcoming barriers hindering the commercialization of perovskite devices related to perovskite stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. NREL researchers have made significant technical contributions within six areas critical to developing commercialized perovskite devices, which include increases in film efficiency and stability and innovations in perovskite film deposition methods, film chemistry, hole and electron extraction layer engineering, and device architecture.


NREL researchers have developed methods for the two-step solution growth and deposition of MAPbI3 perovskites. The novel two-step solution growth method involves pre-treating a PbI2 precursor film in an ether solvent, which leads to the rapid extraction of the solvent molecule from the PbI2 precursor film, and then dipping this pre-treated film into the MAI solution to produce MAPbI3 films. This method is applicable to other perovskite compositions and results in an increased PbI2-to-MAPbI3 conversion efficiency. In addition, the innovative deposition method applies a mix of a stoichiometric precursor with a non-stoichiometric MAPbI3 precursor and an excess amount of methylammonium halide to a substrate that is thermally treated to produce MaPbI3 perovskites with reduced hysteresis and that have a 2% to 3% increase in conversion efficiency when compared to a MAPbI3 film prepared with a standard stoichiometric precursor.

This technology is within the Film Deposition category of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Film Deposition category consists of novel methods for more rapid, less expensive, and more effective means of depositing perovskite films. These techniques have been published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and are prepared for scaling to commercial levels.

  • Reduces PbI2-to-MAPbI3 conversion time
  • Increases PbI2-to-MAPbI3 conversion efficiency
  • Reduces hysteresis
Applications and Industries
  • Perovskites
  • Photovoltaics
  • Film Deposition
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROIs 15-20, 16-88PrototypeAvailable01/26/201701/26/2017

Contact NREL About This Technology

To: Bill Hadley<>