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Methods for Producing Single Crystal Mixed Halide Perovskites

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite halides (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar cell performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure, wherein an organic based cation is A, a metal cation is B, and a divalent halide anion is X. Work on solar cells using these perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes that result in high device efficiency with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. However, this potential for low cost and scalability requires overcoming barriers hindering the commercialization of perovskite devices related to perovskite stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. NREL researchers have made significant technical contributions within six areas critical to developing commercialized perovskite devices, which include increases in film efficiency and stability and innovations in perovskite film deposition methods, film chemistry, hole and electron extraction layer engineering, and device architecture.


Researchers at NREL have developed a simple, low-cost, low temperature synthesis to prepare single crystal perovskites, such as MAPbBr3. This method involves heating a stoichiometric solution of PbBr2 and MABr at a temperature ranging from 40°C to 100°C in an organic solvent (e.g. dimethylformamide) to produce single crystal MAPbBr3 perovskites. In addition, this novel deposition method – alongside enhancing film crystallinity, as demonstrated through X-ray diffraction results – enables the control of doping based on the amount of Cl source added to the precursor solution.

This technology is within the Film Deposition category of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Film Deposition category consists of novel methods for more rapid, less expensive, and more effective means of depositing perovskite films. These techniques have been published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and are prepared for scaling to commercial levels.

  • Enables control of doping
  • Low-cost
  • Enhanced crystallinity
Applications and Industries
  • Photovoltaics
  • Perovskites
  • Film Deposition
Patents and Patent Applications
ID Number
Title and Abstract
Primary Lab
Patent 9,701,696
Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites
An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about C.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 07/11/2017
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROI 14-88PrototypeAvailable01/26/201701/26/2017

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To: Bill Hadley<>