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Methods for Producing and Using Perovskite Materials and Devices Therefrom

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Perovskite halides (e.g. CH3NH3PbI3 or MAPbI3) are a new class of light absorbers with exceptional and unparalleled progress in solar cell performance. A perovskite is any material with a specific ABX3 crystal structure, wherein an organic based cation is A, a metal cation is B, and a divalent halide anion is X. Work on solar cells using these perovskite materials has advanced rapidly as a result of the material’s excellent light absorption, charge-carrier mobilities, and lifetimes that result in high device efficiency with low-cost, industry-scalable technology. However, this potential for low cost and scalability requires overcoming barriers hindering the commercialization of perovskite devices related to perovskite stability, efficiency, and environmental compatibility. NREL researchers have made significant technical contributions within six areas critical to developing commercialized perovskite devices, which include increases in film efficiency and stability and innovations in perovskite film deposition methods, film chemistry, hole and electron extraction layer engineering, and device architecture.


NREL researchers have developed novel one- and two-step deposition methods for MAPbI3 and MAPbI2Br perovskite solution growth that involve the introduction of MACl to the perovskite precursor solution. These methods have been demonstrated through current-voltage (I-V) curves to improve both the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the short-circuit current (JSC) of perovskite films and through X-ray diffraction to enhance the crystal structure formation. In addition, NREL researchers have developed dip-coating and spray-coating techniques, where the substrate is either immersed in and withdrawn from the perovskite precursor solution or sprayed with the perovskite precursor by a spray gun or similar equipment.  These coating methods enable high throughput manufacturing and can maximize the yield of the precursor into final device architecture.

This patent is within the Film Efficiency, Film Stability, and Film Deposition categories of NREL’s perovskite portfolio. For further information regarding NREL's broader perovskite portfolio, please visit NREL's Perovskite Patent Portfolio website.

The Film Efficiency category consists of film deposition methods, chemistry improvements, and engineering of device layer and architecture to push commercial perovskite device efficiencies to 20% and beyond.

The Film Stability category comprises technologies that improve perovskite devices’ resistance to environmental factors that degrade device performance over time. These technologies include methods of depositing perovskite films, encapsulant coatings, and novel film chemistries.

The Film Deposition category consists of novel methods for more rapid, less expensive, and more effective means of depositing perovskite films. These techniques have been published in multiple peer-reviewed journals and are prepared for scaling to commercial levels.

  • Improves VOC and JSC
  • Enhances crystal structure formation
  • Suitable for high-throughput manufacturing
  • Maximizes yield of precursor
Applications and Industries
  • Perovskites
  • Photovoltaics
  • Film Deposition
More Information

For more information on the status of this pending patent application, please contact Bill Hadley.

Patents and Patent Applications
ID Number
Title and Abstract
Primary Lab
Application 20170186559
The present disclosure describes solution methods for manufacturing perovskite halide films for use in solar cells. The methods include the use of additives that facilitate the formation of transitory, intermediate films that are later transformed into the final target perovskite halide films, such that the final films provide improved physical characteristics and operational performance.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory 05/28/2015
Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL ROIs 14-51, 14-77, 14-78, 14-93PrototypeAvailable01/26/201701/26/2017

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To: Bill Hadley<>