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Home Energy Management System - Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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Technology Marketing Summary

Future sustainable electricity systems will consist of billions of smart devices and millions of actors such as homes, buildings, microgrids, utilities, electric vehicles, etc. At the same time that the associated infrastructure is being instrumented with sensors and communications, appliances and distributed energy resources are being deployed with embedded computers, which are enabling distributed energy intelligence – thus enhancing the capability of these actors in energy decision-making. Residential customers want to enhance their comfort and minimize their energy cost, while utilities focus more on load shape, peak load, and quality of service. In this context, a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) can provide the means to meet the different objectives of the residential customers and the utilities.

 

Description

The HEMS algorithm schedules residential appliance operation to minimize the weighted sum of occupant discomfort, total energy cost, peak electricity consumption and carbon footprint, weighted according to occupant preferences. A centralized mixed integer linear programming (MILP) based optimization approach is taken, with the HEMS managing all appliances directly, following a Model Predictive Control (MPC) methodology which determines the optimal schedule over the user-specified scheduling horizon and repeats the optimization at configurable time intervals. The HEMS is developed on the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) using the MILP solver. This system is able to effectively deal with the stochasticity in the distributed system by utilizing Monte Carlo simulation where uncertainties in future electricity price, outdoor temperature, water usage, solar and wind generation can be accounted for. The HEMS controls the operation of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, water heater, refrigerator, residential batteries, electric vehicles, standalone micro combined heat and power (CHP) generator, dishwasher, washer/dryer, pool pumps, and lighting.

 

Benefits
  • Reduces the need for consumers to directly manage their appliances
  • Allows consumers to effortlessly benefit from time-of-use rate structures
  • Allows utilities to manage peak load through tariff design

 

Applications and Industries
  • Residential and small commercial buildings
  • Microgrids
  • Utilities
  • Electric vehicles

 

Technology Status
Technology IDDevelopment StageAvailabilityPublishedLast Updated
NREL SWR 15-12DevelopmentAvailable11/10/201511/10/2015

Contact NREL About This Technology

To: Doreen Molk<doreen.molk@nrel.gov>