This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. NSF-CMMI-1235361 awarded by the National Science Foundation, and under a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship awarded by the U.S. Department of Defense. The government has certain rights in this invention.