This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to liquid flow cells for microscopy. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate having a first and a second oxide layer disposed on surfaces of the substrate. A first and a second nitride layer are disposed on the first and second oxide layers, respectively. A cavity is defined in the first oxide layer, the first nitride layer, and the substrate, with the cavity including a third nitride layer disposed on walls of the substrate and the second oxide layer that define the cavity. A channel is defined in the second oxide layer. An inlet port and an outlet port are defined in the second nitride layer and in fluid communication with the channel. A plurality of viewports is defined in the second nitride layer. A first graphene sheet is disposed on the second nitride layer covering the plurality of viewports.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy, under Award No. HDTRA1-13-1-0035 awarded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and under Grant No. EEC-0832819 awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The government has certain rights in this invention.