Liquefaction processes are provided that can include: providing a biomass slurry solution having a temperature of at least 300.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 2000 psig; cooling the solution to a temperature of less than 150.degree. C.; and depressurizing the solution to release carbon dioxide from the solution and form at least part of a bio-oil foam. Liquefaction processes are also provided that can include: filtering the biomass slurry to remove particulates; and cooling and depressurizing the filtered solution to form the bio-oil foam. Liquefaction systems are provided that can include: a heated biomass slurry reaction zone maintained above 300.degree. C. and at least 2000 psig and in continuous fluid communication with a flash cooling/depressurization zone maintained below 150.degree. C. and between about 125 psig and about atmospheric pressure. Liquefaction systems are also provided that can include a foam/liquid separation system. Liquefaction process intermediate compositions are provided that can include a bio-oil foam phase separated from an aqueous biomass solids solution.
STATEMENT REGARDING RIGHTS TO INVENTION MADE UNDER FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-ACO5-76RL01830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.