Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
Aspects of this invention were made with government support under one or more of: contract number DMS-0935165 awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Solar Program; under contract number DE-SC0002158 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering; under contract number ONR-N00014-10-1-0942 awarded by the Office of Naval Researched MURI Program; under contract number CBET-0854226 awarded by NSF-CBET; and under contract number DMR11-20901 awarded by the NSF. The government has rights in this invention.