In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
This invention was made with government support under Grant 1026639 awarded by the National Science Foundation, and Award No. DE-EE0005547, awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.