Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
This invention was made with government support under grant DGE0221678, awarded by the National Science Foundation, grants 22000109, DE-FG02-06ER15776, and 10020047, awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy, and grant LDRD 2007, awarded by PNNL/Battelle. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.