Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH STATEMENT
This invention was made with Government support under DE-FG36-06GO86025 awarded by the United States Department of Energy and 0221966 awarded by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, NIFA. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention.