A system includes utilizes optical sensors arranged within or on portions of an electrochemical energy device (e.g., a rechargeable Li-ion battery, supercapacitor or fuel cell) to measure operating parameters (e.g., mechanical strain and/or temperature) of the electrochemical energy device during charge/recharge cycling. The measured parameter data is transmitted by way of light signals along optical fibers to a controller, which converts the light signals to electrical data signal using a light source/analyzer. A processor then extracts temperature and strain data features from the data signals, and utilizes a model-based process to detect intercalation stage changes (i.e., characteristic crystalline structure changes caused by certain concentrations of guest species, such as Li-ions, within the electrode material of the electrochemical energy device) indicated by the data features. The detected intercalation stage changes are used to generate highly accurate operating state information (e.g., state-of-charge and state-of-health), and management/control signals for optimizing charge/discharge rates.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with government support under contract number ARPA DE-AR0000274, awarded by ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency--Energy). The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.