Described herein are methods of generating 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY.sup..cndot.+), and methods for utilizing the radical-radical interactions between two or more BIPY.sup..cndot.+ radical cations that ensue for the creation of novel materials for applications in nanotechnology. Synthetic methodologies, crystallographic engineering techniques, methods of physical characterization, and end uses are described.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
This invention was made with U.S. government support under Grant No. DMR-0520513 awarded by the National Science Foundation; Grant No. FA9550-07-1-0534 awarded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR); Grant No. W911NF-10-1-0510 awarded by the Army Research Office (ARO); and Grant No. DE-SC0005462 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The government has certain rights in the invention.