The present invention is directed to crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles comprising a conductive organic polymer; wherein the crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles have a size of from 10 nm to 200 nm and exhibits two current-voltage states: (1) a high resistance current-voltage state, and (2) a low resistance current-voltage state, wherein when a first positive threshold voltage (V.sub.th1) or higher positive voltage, or a second negative threshold voltage (V.sub.th2) or higher negative voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the low-resistance current-voltage state, and when a voltage less positive than the first positive threshold voltage or a voltage less negative than the second negative threshold voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the high-resistance current-voltage state. The present invention is also directed methods of manufacturing the nanoparticles using novel interfacial oxidative polymerization techniques.
The research leading to the present invention was supported, in part, by Grant No. DEFG-02-01ER45935 from the U.S. Department of Energy, and Grant Nos. 2-S06-GM60654 and G12-RR-03037 from the National Institutes of Health. Accordingly, the United States Government may have certain rights in the invention. Additionally, NSF support through MRSEC for Polymers at Engineered Interfaces is acknowledged.