Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with government support under Grant No. CMMI0927693 awarded by the National Science Foundation, under Grant No. DE-FG02-02ER45975 awarded by the Department of Energy and under Contract No. W31P4Q-09-1-0007 awarded by the Army Aviation and Missile Command. The government has certain rights in the invention.