A method for conducting nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The method includes quantifying the nonlinear response of an electrochemical system by measuring higher-order current or voltage harmonics generated by moderate-amplitude sinusoidal current or voltage perturbations. The method involves acquisition of the response signal followed by time apodization and fast Fourier transformation of the data into the frequency domain, where the magnitude and phase of each harmonic signal can be readily quantified. The method can be implemented on a computer as a software program.
GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS
Research leading to the present invention was supported, at least in part, under National Science Foundation Grant No. CTS 0412076, and Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FC26-02NT41566.