An electrolyte system includes a reactor having a pair of electrodes that may sorb ions from an electrolyte. The electrolyte system also includes at least one power supply in electrical communication with the reactor. The at least one power supply may supply a DC signal and an AC signal to the pair of electrodes during sorption of the ions. In addition, the power supply may supply only the AC signal to the pair of electrodes during desorption of the ions.
The inventions were made with government support under Prime Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in inventions.