An excitation voltage biases an ionic conducting material sample over a nanoscale grid. The bias sweeps a modulated voltage with increasing maximal amplitudes. A current response is measured at grid locations. Current response reversal curves are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Reversal curves are averaged over the grid for each bias cycle and mapped over maximal bias amplitudes for each bias cycle. Average reversal curve areas are mapped over maximal amplitudes of the bias cycles. Thresholds are determined for onset and ending of electrochemical activity. A predetermined number of bias sweeps may vary in frequency where each sweep has a constant number of cycles and reversal response curves may indicate ionic diffusion kinetics.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 between UT-Battelle, LLC. and the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.