A device according to one embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge and pore configuration characterized by a double layer overlap effect being present in pores of the membrane. A device according to another embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge in pores thereof sufficient to impart anion or cation selectivity in the pores. Additional devices, systems and methods are also presented.
The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 between the United States Department of Energy and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC for the operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.