The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that can incorporate unnatural amino acid into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli, or in a eukaryotic host such as a yeast cell. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing unnatural amino acids, and translation systems.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with government support under Grant No. DE-FG 03-00ER45601 awarded by the Department of Energy, and under Grant Nos. GM062159 and AI066507 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in this invention.