Electrode structures, and more specifically, electrode structures for use in electrochemical cells, are provided. The electrode structures described herein may include one or more protective layers. In one set of embodiments, a protective layer may be formed by exposing a lithium metal surface to a plasma comprising ions of a gas to form a ceramic layer on top of the lithium metal. The ceramic layer may be highly conductive to lithium ions and may protect the underlying lithium metal surface from reaction with components in the electrolyte. In some cases, the ions may be nitrogen ions and a lithium nitride layer may be formed on the lithium metal surface. In other embodiments, the protective layer may be formed by converting lithium to lithium nitride at high pressures. Other methods for forming protective layers are also provided.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
This invention was made with government support under Grant No. DE-AR0000067 awarded by the Department of Energy ARPA-E (BEEST DE-FOA-00000207-1536). The government has certain rights in the invention.