Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.
STATEMENT REGARDING U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS
This invention was made with U.S. government support under Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46516, awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.