This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
Research was partially funded under US Environmental Protection Agency Contract EPA-EP-D-11-034. The title of the contract is "A Greener and More Energy Efficient Renewable Energy Resource--Ground Source Heat Pumps."