Methods of fabricating solar cells are described. A porous layer may be formed on a surface of a substrate, the porous layer including a plurality of particles and a plurality of voids. A solution may be dispensed into one or more regions of the porous layer to provide a patterned composite layer. The substrate may then be heated.
The invention described herein was made with Governmental support under contract number DE-FC36-07GO17043 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The Government may have certain rights in the invention.