Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT
This invention was made with government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy and under Grant No. PN2EY016546 awarded by the National Institute of Health. The government has certain rights in this invention.