A hybrid photovoltaic cell comprising a composite substrate of a nanotube or nanorod array of metal oxide infiltrated with a monomer precursor and subsequently polymerized in situ via UV irradiation. In an embodiment, the photovoltaic cell comprises an electron accepting TiO.sub.2 nanotube array infiltrated with a photo-sensitive electron donating conjugated polymer. The conjugated polymer may be formed in situ through UV irradiation polymerizing a monomer precursor such as 2,5-diiodothiophene (DIT).
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST
The United States Government claims certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38 between the United States Government and the University of Chicago and/or pursuant to DE-AC02-06CH11357 between the United States Government and UChicago Argonne, LLC representing Argonne National Laboratory.