A cathode that contain nanostructures that extend into the organic layer of an OLED has been described. The cathode can have an array of nanotubes or a layer of nanoclusters extending out from its surface. In another arrangement, the cathode is patterned and etched to form protruding nanostructures using a standard lithographic process. Various methods for fabricating these structures are provided, all of which are compatible with large-scale manufacturing. OLEDs made with these novel electrodes have greatly enhanced electron injection, have good environmental stability.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT
The invention described and claimed herein was made in part utilizing funds supplied by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.