Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.
This invention was made with Government support of Grant Nos. EB000312 and RR014891 awarded by the National Institutes of Health and Grant No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.