Barrier layers and methods for forming barrier layers on a porous layer are provided. The methods can include chemically adsorbing a plurality of first molecules on a surface of the porous layer in a chamber and forming a first layer of the first molecules on the surface of the porous layer. A plasma can then be used to react a plurality of second molecules with the first layer of first molecules to form a first layer of a barrier layer. The barrier layers can seal the pores of the porous material, function as a diffusion barrier, be conformal, and/or have a negligible impact on the overall ILD k value of the porous material.
This invention was made with Government support under Grant No. DE-FG02-0-02ER15368, awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy; Sub-Award No. 2003-08000-02 (formerly known as 04-127), awarded by the Universality of Illinois under the prime Grant No. DAAD 19-03-1-0227 awarded by the U.S. Army Research Office to University of Illinois; and developed under Contract No. DE-AC04/94AL85000 between Sandia Corporation and the U.S. Department of Energy. The U.S. Government has certain rights in this invention.