An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.
This invention was made with Government support under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contract No. NDJ-1-30630-08 awarded by the Department of Energy, and under ARL-WPAFB Grant "Photovoltaic Hydrogen for Portable, On-Demand Power" awarded to the University of Toledo under subcontract 03-S530-0011-01C1 under the primary contract F33615-02-D-2299 through the Universal Technology Corporation. The government has certain rights in this invention.