The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.
The invention was supported, in whole or in part, by grant Nos. DE-FG02-00ER45805 and DE-AC05-76RL01830 from The Department of Energy, grant Nos. DAAD16-00-C-9227 and DAAD16-02-C-0037 from The US Army Natick Soldier Systems Center, grant Nos. ECS-0103012 and CMS-0219836 from the National Science Foundation, and by grant Nos. NIH CA-97945-01 and NIH/1R01 ES010976-01A2 from the National Institute of Health. The Government has certain rights in the invention.