The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode wave guide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.
This invention was made with funds provided by the U.S. Government under National Science Foundation Grant No. BIR8800278, and National Institutes of Health Grant No. P412RR04224-11, and Department of Energy Grant No. 066898-0003891. The U.S. Government may have certain rights in this invention.