The invention is based, in part, on the discovery that by combining certain components one can generate a tissue-like phantom that mimics any desired tissue, is simple and inexpensive to prepare, and is stable over many weeks or months. In addition, new multi-modal imaging objects (e.g., beads) can be inserted into the phantoms to mimic tissue pathologies, such as cancer, or merely to serve as calibration standards. These objects can be imaged using one, two, or more (e.g., four) different imaging modalities (e.g., x-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence) simultaneously.
STATEMENT AS TO FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
This invention was made with Government support under National Cancer Institute Grant Nos. R21/33-CA-88245 and R21-CA-88870, Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-01ER63188, and National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering Grant No. R21/R33-EB-00673. The Government thus has certain rights in the invention.