A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST
This invention was made with Government assistance under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under Air Force contract No. F33615-01-C-2172 and the Department Of Energy Grant No DEGF-02-99ER14993. The Government has certain rights in the invention.