A fluid circuit includes a membrane having a first side, a second side opposite the first side, and a pore extending from the first side to the second side. The circuit also includes a first channel containing fluid extending along the first side of the membrane and a second channel containing fluid extending along the second side of the membrane and crossing the first channel. The circuit also includes an electrical source in electrical communication with at least one of the first fluid and second fluid for selectively developing an electrical potential between fluid in the first channel and fluid in the second channel. This causes at least one component of fluid to pass through the pore in the membrane from one of the first channel and the second channel to the other of the first channel and the second channel.
This invention was made with government support under grants from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE FG02 88ER13949 and DE FG02 99ER62797), the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (F30602-00-2-0567) and the National Cancer Institute (CA82081). The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention.