Apparatuses, systems, methods, and computer code for, among other things, monitoring the health of samples such as the brain while providing local cooling or heating. A representative device is a heat transfer probe, which includes an inner channel, a tip, a concentric outer channel, a first temperature sensor, and a second temperature sensor. The inner channel is configured to transport working fluid from an inner inlet to an inner outlet. The tip is configured to receive at least a portion of the working fluid from the inner outlet. The concentric outer channel is configured to transport the working fluid from the inner outlet to an outer outlet. The first temperature sensor is coupled to the tip, and the second temperature sensor spaced apart from the first temperature sensor.
STATEMENT AS TO RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Aspects of this invention were made with government support of the U.S. Department of Energy, contract no. W-31-109-ENG-38. The government may have certain rights in this invention.