An apparatus for carrying out the separation, detection, and/or counting of single molecules at nanometer scale. Molecular separation is achieved by driving single molecules through a microfluidic or nanofluidic medium using programmable and coordinated electric fields. In various embodiments, the fluidic medium is a strip of hydrophilic material on nonconductive hydrophobic surface, a trough produced by parallel strips of hydrophobic nonconductive material on a hydrophilic base, or a covered passageway produced by parallel strips of hydrophobic nonconductive material on a hydrophilic base together with a nonconductive cover on the parallel strips of hydrophobic nonconductive material. The molecules are detected and counted using nanoelectrode-gated electron tunneling methods, dielectric monitoring, and other methods.
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 between the United States Department of Energy and UT-Battelle, LLC.