A new class of surface modified particles and a multi-step Michael-type addition surface modification process for the preparation of the same is provided. The multi-step Michael-type addition surface modification process involves two or more reactions to compatibilize particles with various host systems and/or to provide the particles with particular chemical reactivities. The initial step comprises the attachment of a small organic compound to the surface of the inorganic particle. The subsequent steps attach additional compounds to the previously attached organic compounds through reactive organic linking groups. Specifically, these reactive groups are activated carbon--carbon pi bonds and carbon and non-carbon nucleophiles that react via Michael or Michael-type additions.
This invention was made, at least in part, with funding from the National Science Foundation, Contract No. DMI-9901730, the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-FG03-00ER82928 and the United States Navy, Contract No. N68335-01-C-0176. Accordingly, the U.S. government may have certain rights in this invention.