A method for forming atomic-scale structures on a surface of a substrate on a large-scale includes creating a predetermined amount of surface vacancies on the surface of the substrate by removing an amount of atoms on the surface of the material corresponding to the predetermined amount of the surface vacancies. Once the surface vacancies have been created, atoms of a desired structure material are deposited on the surface of the substrate to enable the surface vacancies and the atoms of the structure material to interact. The interaction causes the atoms of the structure material to form the atomic-scale structures.
STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL INTEREST
This invention was made with Government support under contract Number DEFG02-ER-45439 awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The Government has certain fights in the invention.