The design and synthesis of a family of calixarene-based nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores are discussed. The calixarene chromophores are macrocyclic compounds consisting of four simple D-.pi.-A units bridged by methylene groups. These molecules were synthesized such that four D-.pi.-A units of the calixarene were aligned along the same direction with the calixarene in a cone conformation. These nonlinear optical super-chromophores were subsequently fabricated into covalently bound self-assembled monolayers on the surfaces of fused silica and silicon. Spectroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements were carried out to determine the absolute value of the dominant element of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility, d.sub.33, and the average molecular alignment, .PSI.. A value of d.sub.33 =60 pm/V at a fundamental wavelength of 890 nm, and .PSI..about.36.degree. was found with respect to the surface normal.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to non-linear optical materials and more particularly to non-linear optical materials including calixarene-based chromophores. This invention was made with government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.