Systems and methods are described for fabricating arrays of quantum dots. A method for making a quantum dot device, includes: forming clusters of atoms on a substrate; and charging the clusters of atoms such that the clusters of atoms repel one another. The systems and methods provide advantages because the quantum dots can be ordered with regard to spacing and/or size.
 This invention was made with Government support under contract No. DE-AC05-960R22464 awarded by the United States Department of Energy to Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, and the Government has certain rights in this invention.