Protein inks made up of proteinated or enzymatic nanoparticles dispersed in liquid solution as a colloid can be printed or coated upon a variety of types of substrates to create a variety of types of products. Examples include, protein microarrays, biochips, biosensors and biochemical reactors. In one application, these immobilized protein inks form three-dimensional bioactive coatings that demonstrate increased stability and sensitivity as compared to other types of protein immobilizing strategies.
FEDERALLY-SPONSORED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 This invention was made with Government support under Contract DE-AC0576RL01830 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.