Methods for growing carbon nanotubes on single crystal substrates are disclosed. A method of producing a nanostructure material comprises coating a single crystal substrate with a catalyst film to form a catalyst coated substrate; annealing the catalyst film by supplying a first promoter gas to the catalyst coated substrate at a first temperature and a first pressure; and supplying a second promoter gas and a carbon-source gas to the catalyst coated substrate in a substantially water-free atmosphere at a second pressure and a second temperature for a time period to cause growth of nanostructures on the catalyst coated substrate. The nanostructure material is used in various applications.
 The invention was supported, in whole or in part, by grant DE-FG02-00ER45805 from the Department of Energy and by a grant NIRT 0304506 from the National Science Foundation. The U.S. Government has certain rights in the invention.