Embodiments of the present invention provide nanomaterial scaffolds for transporting electrons. There is provided a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) architecture employed as a conducting scaffold in semiconductor based photoelectrochemical cells. SWCNT architecture provides a nanotube network to disperse nanoparticles and/or quantum dots, whether ordered or randomized. As a result, an increase in incident photon conversion to charge carrier conversion efficiency (IPCE) represents a beneficial role of SWCNT architecture as a conducting scaffold to facilitate charge collection and charge transport in nanostructured semiconductor films. Embodiments may be used for solar cells based on semiconductor quantum dots and nanostructures, solar hydrogen production, microcapacitors and storage batteries, solar-fuel cell hybrids, etc.
 This invention was made with Government support under Grant/Contract No. DE-FC02-04ER15533 awarded by the US Department of Energy. The Government may have certain rights in the invention.